Select Operators
Single Row Functions for Numbers, Chars and Dates
Conversion Functions
Miscellaneous Single Row Functions
Aggregate Functions
Analytical Functions
Object Reference Functions
Date Format Models
Date Prefixes and Suffixes
Number Format Models
NULL Related Functions
Comparison Operators
Table 11. Comparison Operators
Operator 
What it does 

=  true if two expressions are equal 
!= ^= = <>  logically equivalent—true if two expressions are not equal 
>  True if left expression is greater than right expression 
>=  True if left expression is greater than or equal to right expression 
<  True if left expression is less than right expression 
<=  True if left expression is less than or equal to right expression 
IN  Is equal to any member of a set or subquery 
NOT IN  Does NOT equal any member of a set or subquery 
ANY, SOME  True if one or more of the values in the list of expressions or subquery satisfies the condition 
ALL  True if all of the values in the list of expressions or subquery satisfies the condition 
BETWEEN x AND y  True if greater than or equal to x and less than or equal to y (can be reversed in meaning with NOT) 
EXISTS  True if the subquery returns at least one row (can be reversed in meaning with NOT) 
LIKE pattern [ESCAPE 'c']  'True if expression or subquery matches pattern. '%' matches any sequence of characters, '_' matches any single character. If ESCAPE is used, the character 'c' causes the character following to be taken literally (can be reversed in meaning with NOT). 
IS NULL  TRUE if the value is NULL (can be reversed in meaning with NOT) 
Select Operators
Also called SET operators
Table 12. Select Operators (Sets)
Operator 
What it does 

UNION  This combines the results of two queries and returns the set of distinct rows returned by either query 
UNION ALL  This combines the results of two queries and returns all rows returned by either query, including duplicates 
INTERSECT  This combines the results of two queries and returns the set of distinct rows returned by both queries 
MINUS  This combines the results of two queries and returns the distinct rows that were in the first query, but not in the second 
Table 13. Other Select Operators
Operator 
What it does 

(+)  Denotes that the preceding column is an outer join 
*  Wildcard operator. Equals all columns in a select statement 
PRIOR  Denotes a parentchild relationship in a treestructured query 
ALL  Include all duplicate rows in a query (the default) 
DISTINCT  Eliminate duplicates in a result set 
Single Row Functions
Number Functions
Table 16. Single Row Number Functions
Function 
What it does 

ABS(n)  Returns absolute value of n 
ACOS(n)  Returns arc cosine of n in radians 
ASIN(n)  Returns arc sine of n in radians 
ATAN(n)  Returns arc tangent of n, in radians 
ATAN2(n,m)  Returns the arc tangent of n and m, in radians 
BITAND(n,m)  Computes the bitwise logical AND of the bits of n and m, where n and m are nonnegative integers. Returns an integer. 
CEIL(n)  Ceiling function—returns the smallest integer >= n 
COS(n)  Returns the cosine of n where n is in radians 
COSH(n)  Returns the hyperbolic cosine of n where n is in radians 
EXP(n)  Returns e^{n} 
FLOOR(n)  Returns the largest integer <= n 
LN(n)  Returns the natural log of n 
LOG(m,n)  Returns the base m log of n 
MOD(m,n)  Returns the modulus of m, n—the remainder of m divided by n. (Returns m when n=0) 
POWER(m,n)  Returns m raised to the n^{th} power 
ROUND (m[,n])  Rounds m to the nearest n places. Where n is omitted, default is zero. n must be an integer 
SIGN(n)  For n < 0, returns –1, for n > 0, returns 1, for n = 0, returns 0 
SIN(n)  Returns sine(n) where n is in radians 
SINH(n)  Returns the hyperbolic sine(n) where n is in radians 
SQRT(n)  Returns the square root of n 
TAN(n)  Returns the tangent(n) where n is in radians 
TANH(n)  Returns the hyperbolic tangent(n) where n is in radians 
TRUNC (m[,n])  Truncate. Returns m truncated to n places. Where n is omitted, it returns the integer value of m. 
WIDTH_BUCKET (exp,min,max,num)  Returns the “bucket” in which exp belongs, where min is the minimum value, max is the maximum value, and num is the number of divisions (buckets) to use 
Character Functions
Table 17. Character Single Row Functions
Function 
What it does 

CHR (n)  Returns the character whose binary value is n. Accepts USING NCHAR_CS clause 
CONCAT (char1,char2)  Combines two strings, char1 and char2 
INITCAP(char)  Returns char with the first character of each word in char capitalized 
LOWER(char)  Returns char with all characters converted to lowercase 
LPAD(char1,n[,char2])  Returns char1 padded on the left to width n with character sequence in char2. Default padding is a single blank (space). 
LTRIM(char[,set])  Returns char with initial characters in set removed from the left. Default set is a blank character (space). 
NLS_INITCAP(char[,nlsparam])  Returns char with the first character of each word in char capitalized. Accepts an NLS parameter. 
NLS_LOWER(char[,nlsparam])  Returns char with all characters converted to lowercase. Accepts an NLS parameter. 
NLSSORT(char[,nlsparam])  Returns language specific sort of char. Accepts an NLS parameter. 
NLS_UPPER(char[,nlsparam])  Returns char with all characters converted to uppercase. Accepts an NLS parameter. 
REPLACE(char[,searchstring[,replacestring]])  Returns char with searchstring replaced by replacestring. Where replacestring is omitted or null, all instances of searchstring are removed. Where searchstring is omitted or null, char is returned. 
RPAD(char1,n[,char2])  Returns char1 padded on the right to width n with character sequence in char2. Default padding is a single blank (space). 
RTRIM(char[,set])  Returns char with initial characters in set removed from the right. Default set is a blank character (space). 
SOUNDEX(char)  Returns the phonetic equivalent of char. Allows for searches for words that sound alike but are spelled differently. 
SUBSTR(string,n[,m])

Returns the substring
of string,
starting at position n, for a length of m
(or to the
end of string if m is not present).
Example: Substring End of String SELECT SUBSTR('Take the first four characters', 16) SIXTEEN_TO_END FROM dual; SIXTEEN_TO_END  four characters 
TRANSLATE(char,from,to)  Returns char, with all occurrences of characters in the from string replaced with the corresponding character in the to string. If to is shorter than from, then from characters without a corresponding to character will be removed. Empty to returns NULL, not an empty string. 
TREAT(exp AS [[REF] [schema.]] type)  Changes the declared type of exp to type 
TRIM([[LEADINGTRAILINGBOTH] [trimchar]FROM]source)  Returns source with leading and/or trailing trimchars removed. Default trimchar is a blank space, default action is to remove both leading and trailing blank spaces. 
UPPER (char)  Returns char with all characters converted to uppercase 
ASCII (char)  Returns the number value of the first character of char 
INSTR(str,substr[,pos[,occur]]) 
“In string” function. Returns the position of the occurrence occur of substr in str, starting at pos. Default for pos and occur is 1. If pos is negative, search works backwards from the end of str. 
LENGTH (char)  Returns the length of char 
Date Functions
Table 18. Date Single Row Functions
Function 
What it does 

ADD_MONTHS(d,n)  Returns the date d plus n months. If d is the last day of the month, or d+n would be past the end of the month, returns the last day of the month. 
CURRENT_DATE  Returns the current Gregorian date as datatype DATE, in the session specific time zone 
CURRENT_TIMESTAMP [(precision)]  Returns the current date and time as datatype TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE, in the session specific time zone. Precision defaults to 6 places. 
DBTIMEZONE  Returns the time zone of the database 
EXTRACT (datetime FROM expr)  datetime can be YEAR, MONTH, DAY, HOUR, MINUTE, SECOND, TIMEZONE_HOUR, TIMEZONE_MINUTE, TIMEZONE_REGION, or TIMEZONE_ABBR, and expr can be either an internal value or datetime value expression 
FROM_TZ(timestamp, time_zone)  Returns timestamp converted to a TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE value, using time_zone 
LAST_DAY(date)  Returns the date of the last day of the month containing date 
LOCALTIMESTAMP [(precision)]  Returns the current date and time of the session in datatype TIMESTAMP of precision 
MONTHS_BETWEEN(date1, date2)  Returns the number of months between date1 and date2 
NEW_TIME(date,zone1,zone2)  Returns date converted from time zone zone1 to zone2. NLS_DATE_FORMAT must be set to a 24hour format. 
NEXT_DAY(date,weekday)  Returns the next weekday later than date where weekday is the day of the week or its abbreviation 
NUMTODSINTERVAL (n, char)  Returns n converted to an INTERVAL DAY TO SECOND literal. char can be 'DAY,' 'HOUR,' 'MINUTE,' or 'SECOND,' or an expression that resolves to one of those 
NUMTOYMINTERVAL (n, char)  Returns n converted to an INTERVAL YEAR TO MONTH literal. char can be 'MONTH' or 'YEAR' or an expression that resolves to one of those 
ROUND (date[,fmt])  Returns date rounded to the nearest unit specified by the format model fmt. Defaults to the nearest day. 
SESSIONTIMEZONE  Returns the time zone of the current session, either as a time zone offset or a time zone region name, depending on the format used for the most recent ALTER SESSION statement 
SYS_EXTRACT_UTC (datetz)  Extracts the UTC value of datetz where datetz is a datetime with time zone displacement 
SYSDATE  Returns the current date and time 
SYSTIMESTAMP  Returns the system timestamp in TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE datatype 
TO_DSINTERVAL(char [nlsparm])  Converts char to an INTERVAL DAY TO SECOND type 
TO_TIMESTAMP (char[,fmt[nlsparm]])  Converts char to datatype of TIMESTAMP. fmt specifies the format of char if other than the default for datatype TIMESTAMP 
TO_TIMESTAMP_TZ (char[,fmt[nlsparm]])  Converts char to datatype of TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE. fmt specifies the format of char if other than the default for datatype TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE. 
TO_YMINTERVA(char)  Converts char to an INTERVAL YEAR TO MONTH type 
TRUNC (date[,fmt])  Returns date truncated to the time unit specified by fmt. If fmt is omitted, date is truncated to the nearest day. 
TZ_OFFSET(tzname  SESSIONTIMEZONE  DBTIMEZONE  '+hh:mi')  Returns the timezone offset 
Conversion Functions
Table 19. Conversion Single Row Functions
Function 
What it does 

ASCIISTR(string)  Returns the ASCII string in the database language of string which can be in any character set. NonASCII characters are converted to their UTF16 binary values. 
BIN_TO_NUM(expr[,expr…])  Converts the binary bits of expr,expr,… to a number. Example: BIN_TO_NUM(1,1,0,1) returns 13. 
CAST(expr  [MULTISET] (subquery) AS type)  Converts from one built in datatype or collection type to another 
CHARTOROWID(char)  Converts char to type ROWID 
COMPOSE('string')  Converts string to its Unicode string equivalent in the same character set 
CONVERT(char, dest_set [,source_set])  Returns char converted from source_set character set to dest_set character set. If source_set is not specified, the database character set is assumed. 
DECOMPOSE(string [CANONICAL  COMPATIBILITY])  Returns a unicode string decomposed from its fully normalized form. If CANONICAL(the default) is used, the result can be recomposed with COMPOSE. 
HEXTORAW (char)  Returns hexadecimal digits of char as RAW 
NUMTODSINTERVAL (n, char)  Converts number n to an INTERVAL DAY TO SECOND literal. char can be 'DAY,' 'HOUR,' 'MINUTE,' or 'SECOND' 
NUMTOYMINTERVAL (n, char)  Converts number n to an INTERVAL YEAR TO MONTH literal. char can be 'YEAR or 'MONTH' 
RAWTOHEX(raw)  Converts raw to its hexadecimal equivalent character value 
RAWTONHEX(raw)  Converts raw to its hexadecimal equivalent NVARCHAR2 character value 
ROWIDTOCHAR(rowid)  Converts rowid to a VARCHAR2 18 characters long 
ROWIDTONCHAR(rowid)  Converts rowid to a NVARCHAR2 18 characters long 
TO_CHAR (nchar  clob  nclob)  Converts an NCHAR, NVARCHAR2, CLOB or NCLOB value to the underlying database character set 
TO_CHAR (date [,fmt[nlsparm]])  Converts date to VARCHAR2, using format fmt and any nlsparm 
TO_CHAR (num [,fmt[nlsparm]])  Converts num to VARCHAR2, using format fmt and any nlsparm 
TO_CLOB (lob_colchar)  Converts lob_col or char to CLOB value 
TO_DATE char [,fmt[nlsparm]]  Converts char to a date, using the format fmt and any nlsparm. If fmt is not specified, then the default date format is used. 
TO_DSINTERVAL (char [nlsparm])  Converts char to an INTERVAL DAY TO SECOND literal 
TO_LOB(long_col)  Converts the LONG or LONG RAW value of long_col to LOB values 
TO_MULTI_BYTE(char)  Converts single byte char to multibyte characters 
TO_NCHAR(char [,fmt[nlsparm]])  Converts a string from the database character set to the national character set 
TO_NCHAR (datetime  interval[,fmt[nlsparm]])  Converts a date, time, or interval value from the database character set to the national character set 
TO_NCHAR (n [,fmt[nlsparm]])  Converts a number to a string in the NVARCHAR2 character set 
TO_NCLOB (lob_column  char)  Converts char or lob_column to NCLOB data, using the national character set 
TO_NUMBER(char[,fmt[nlsparm]])  Converts char to a number, using fmt as the format specifier 
TO_SINGLE_BYTE(char)  Returns char with any multibyte characters converted to the corresponding single byte characters 
TO_YMINTERVAL(char [nlsparm])  Converts char to an INTERVAL YEAR TO MONTH literal 
TRANSLATE (text USING CHAR_CS  NCHAR_CS)  Returns text translated into the database character set (USING CHAR_CS) or the national character set (USING NCHAR_CS) 
UNISTR(string)  Returns string in Unicode using the database Unicode character set 
Miscellaneous Single Row Functions
Table 110. Miscellaneous Single Row Functions
Function 
What it does 

BFILENAME('dir','fname')  Returns a locator for an LOB binary file on the filesystem. dir is the database object that is an alias for the full pathname of the file directory, fname is the actual file name. 
COALESCE(expr[,expr,...])  Returns the first nonnull expression in a list of expressions 
DECODE(expr,search ,result [ ,search,result...][,default])  Searches expr for search, returning the specific result for each search. Returns default if search is not found. 
DEPTH(correlation_int)  Returns the number of levels in the path specified by an UNDER_PATH condition 
DUMP(expr[,return_fmt [,start[,length]]])  Returns a VARCHAR2 value with the datatype, length, and internal representation of expr, using the format of return_fmt. Returns entire internal representation unless start and optionally length are specified. 
EMPTY_BLOB()  Returns a locator for a BLOB, allowing you to initialize the BLOB 
EMPTY_CLOB()  Returns a locator for a CLOB, allowing you to initialize the CLOB 
EXISTSNODE(XML_Instance, path [expr])  Walks the XML tree and returns success if a node is found that matches the specified path 
EXTRACT (XML_Instance, path [expr])  Walks the XML tree and, if nodes are found which match the specified path, returns those nodes 
EXTRACTVALUE(XML_Instance, path [expr])  Walks the XML tree and, if nodes are found that match the specified path, returns the scalar value of those nodes 
GREATEST(expr[,expr,...])  Returns the expression in the list with greatest value. All data types are implicitly converted to the data type of the first expression. Character comparisons use the database character set. 
LEAST(expr[,expr,...])  Returns the expression in the list with least value. All data types are implicitly converted to the data type of the first expression. Character comparisons use the database character set. 
NLS_CHARSET_DECL_LEN (bytes,set_id)  Returns the declaration width of the NCHAR column of width bytes and a character set ID of set_id 
NLS_CHARSET_ID(text)  Returns the number of a character set ID with a character set name of text 
NLS_CHARSET_NAME(num)  Returns the character set name of the character set with ID num 
NULLIF(expr1,expr2)  Returns null if expr1and expr2 are equal, else returns expr1 
NVL(expr1,expr2)  Returns expr2 if expr1 is NULL, else returns expr1 
NVL2(expr1,expr2,expr3)  Returns expr2 if expr1 is NOT NULL, else returns expr3 
PATH (correlation_int)  Returns the relative path to the resource specified in an UNDER_PATH or EQUALS_PATH condition 
SYS_CONNECT_BY_PATH (column,char)  Returns the path of a column value from root to node in an hierarchical query. Column values are separated by char. 
SYS_CONTEXT('namespace', 'param'[,len])  Returns a VARCHAR2 with the value of param of namespace. Return is 256 bytes unless overridden by len. 
SYS_DBURIGEN(colattr [rowid][,colattr [rowid],...] [,'text()'])  Generates a URL that can be used to retrieve an XML document from one or more columns col or attributes attr with or without a rowid 
SYS_EXTRACT_UTC(time)  Returns the UTC from time where time is a datetime with time zone displacement 
SYS_GUID()  Generates and then returns a Globally Unique IDentifier (GUID) of 16 RAW bytes 
SYS_TYPEID(obj_val)  Returns the typeid of an object type operand 
SYS_XMLAGG(expr [fmt])  Creates a single wellformed XML document from multiple documents 
SYS_XMLGEN(expr [fmt])  Creates a wellformed XML document from a database row/column expression 
UID  Returns the UID of the current session user 
UPDATEXML(XML_instance, path, expr)  Updates an XML document by searching for the node specified in the path, then replaces either the node or the scalar value of the node, depending on argument types 
USER  Returns the username of the current session user 
USERENV(param)  Returns a variety of information about the current session. While deprecated in favor of SYS_CONTEXT, this is retained for backward compatibility. 
VSIZE(expr)  Returns the number of bytes used by the value represented by expr 
XMLAGG(XML_instance [ORDER BY sortlist])  Returns a wellformed XML document by aggregating a series of XML fragments. The returned document is a simple aggregate and no formatting is supported. 
XMLCOLATTVAL  Creates an XML fragment for one or more columns of a single row. The format of the fragment is fixed as <column name=”column name”>column value</column>. 
XMLCONCAT(XML_instance [, XML_instance,...])  Returns an XML fragment created by concatenating a series of XML fragments or elements 
XMLFOREST  Creates an XML fragment for one or more columns of a single row. The format of the fragment is fixed as <column name>column value</column name>. 
XMLSEQUENCE  Used to “unroll” a stored XMLType into multiple rows for further processing as individual elements 
XMLTRANSFORM  Applies an XSL style sheet to an XML document and returns the resulting new XML document 
Aggregate Functions
All of the aggregate functions described below can have an analytical clause appended to them using the OVER (analytical_clause) syntax. For space considerations, we've omitted this from the Function column.
Table 111. Aggregate Functions
Function 
What it does 

AVG([DISTINCTALL] expr)  Computes the average of the rows returned by expr. If the DISTINCT keyword is used, duplicate rows will be excluded from the calculation. 
CORR( expr1 , expr2 )  Calculates the coefficient of correlation between expr1 and expr2 
COUNT(*  [DISTINCTALL] expr)  Returns the number of [DISTINCT] rows in the expr that are not null, or if * is specified, the total number of rows, including duplicates and nulls 
COVAR_POP( expr1, expr2 )  Given a set of pairs, expr1 and expr2, where nulls are excluded, returns the population covariance 
COVAR_SAMP( expr1, expr2 )  Given a set of pairs, expr1 and expr2, where nulls are excluded, returns the sample covariance 
CUME_DIST(expr[,expr...]) WITHIN GROUP (ORDER BY expr [DESCASC] [NULLS [FIRSTLAST])  Given a list of values, finds and returns the cumulative distribution of a single value within that list 
DENSE_RANK(expr[,expr...]) WITHIN GROUP (ORDER BY expr)  Given an ordered group of rows, finds and returns the rank of a single value within that group 
FIRST ORDER BY expr [DESCASC] [NULLS [FIRSTLAST])  Returns the first row or rows from a set based on the specified sort order. If multiple rows tie as “first” then all tied rows will be returned. Used in an aggregate function. 
GROUP_ID()  Used in GROUP BY specification to distinguish duplicate groups 
GROUPING(expr)  Used to distinguish superaggregate rows from regular grouped rows when ROLLUP and CUBE are used 
GROUPING_ID(expr[,expr...])  Returns the number of the GROUPING bit vector for a row 
LAST ORDER BY expr [DESCASC] [NULLS [FIRSTLAST])  Returns the last row or rows from a set based on the specified sort order. If multiple rows tie as “last” then all tied rows will be returned. Used in an aggregate function. 
MAX([DISTINCTALL] expr)  Returns the maximum value of expr. If the DISTINCT keyword is used, duplicate rows will be excluded from the calculation. 
MIN([DISTINCTALL] expr)  Returns the minimum value of expr. If the DISTINCT keyword is used, duplicate rows will be excluded from the calculation. 
PERCENTILE_CONT(expr) WITHIN GROUP (ORDER BY expr [DESCASC])  Given a list of values and a specified percentile ranking, returns the interpolated value of that percentile by assuming a continuous distribution of data in the list 
PERCENTILE_DISC(expr) WITHIN GROUP (ORDER BY expr [DESCASC])  Given a list of values and a specified percentile ranking, returns the smallest value that meets or exceeds that percentile rank by assuming a discrete distribution of data in the list 
PERCENT_RANK(expr) WITHIN GROUP (ORDER BY expr [DESCASC][NULLS FIRSTLAST])  Given a list of values, calculates the hypothetical rank of a single value within that list 
RANK(expr) WITHIN GROUP (ORDER BY expr [DESCASC][NULLS FIRSTLAST])  Returns the rank (ordering) of expr in the group of values returned by the order by expression 
STDDEV([DISTINCTALL] expr)  Returns the standard deviation of expr 
STDDEV_POP([DISTINCTALL] expr)  Returns the square root of the population variance from computing the standard deviation of expr 
STDDEV_SAMP([DISTINCTALL] expr)  Returns the square root of the cumulative sample standard deviation of expr 
SUM([DISTINCTALL] expr)  Returns the sum of expr. Distinct eliminates duplicates from the set of values being summed. 
VAR_POP(expr)  Returns the population variance of expr. Nulls are removed from the calculation. 
VAR_SAMP(expr)  Returns the sample variance of expr. Nulls are removed from the calculation. 
VARIANCE([DISTINCTALL] expr)  The variance of expr, with duplicates removed if DISTINCT is specified 
Table 112. Regression Functions
Function 
What it does 

REGR_SLOPE(expr,expr2)  Returns the slope of a least squares regression line of the set of number pairs defined by (expr,expr2) 
REGR_INTERCEPT(expr,expr2)  Returns the Y intercept of a least squares regression line of the set of number pairs defined by (expr,expr2) 
REGR_COUNT(expr,expr2)  Returns the number of NOT NULL pairs used to fit the least squares regression line of the set of number pairs defined by (expr,expr2) 
REGR_R2(expr,expr2)  Returns the R^{2} value (coefficient of determination) of a least squares regression line of the set of number pairs defined by (expr,expr2) 
REGR_AVGX(expr,expr2)  Returns the average value of expr2 of a least squares regression line of the set of number pairs defined by (expr,expr2) after removing nulls from the calculation 
REGR_AVGY(expr,expr2)  Returns the average value of expr of a least squares regression line of the set of number pairs defined by (expr,expr2) after removing nulls from the calculation 
REGR_SXX(expr,expr2)  Returns the value of calculating REGR_COUNT(expr, expr2) * VAR_POP(expr2) with nulls removed from the calculation 
REGR_SYY(expr,expr2)  Returns the value of calculating REGR_COUNT(expr, expr2) * VAR_POP(expr) with nulls removed from the calculation 
REGR_SXY(expr,expr2)  Returns the value of calculating REGR_COUNT(expr, expr2) * COVAR_POP(expr,expr2) with nulls removed from the calculation 
Analytical Functions
All of the aggregate functions described above can also have analytic functionality, using the OVER (analytical_clause) syntax. For space considerations, we've declined to list them twice. Note that you cannot nest analytic functions.
Table 113. Analytical Functions
Function 
What it does 

FIRST_VALUE(expr) OVER (analytical_clause)  Returns the first in the ordered set of expr 
LAG(expr[,offset][,default]) OVER (analytical_clause)  Provides access at a point offset prior to the cursor in a series of rows returned by expr 
LAST_VALUE(expr) OVER (analytical_clause)  Returns the last in the ordered set of expr 
LEAD(expr[,offset][,default]) OVER (analytical_clause)  Provides access at a point offset beyond the cursor in a series of rows returned by expr 
NTILE(expr) OVER (analytical_clause)  Divides the ordered dataset into expr number of buckets 
RATIO_TO_REPORT(expr) OVER (analytical_clause)  Returns the ratio of expr to the sum returned by analytical_clause 
ROW_NUMBER(expr) OVER ([partition_clause]order_by_clause)  Assigns a unique number to each row 
Object Reference Functions
Table 114. Object Reference Functions
Function 
What it does 

DEREF(expr)  Returns the object reference of expr. Without this, an the object ID of the reference would be returned. 
MAKE_REF(tableview,key [,key...])  Returns a REF to a row of an object view or table 
REF(correlation_var)  Returns the REF value of correlation_var 
REFTOHEX(expr)  Converts expr to its hexadecimal equivalent where expr is a REF 
VALUE(correlation_var)  Returns the value associated with the correlation_var 
Date Format Models
Table 115. Date Format Models
Element 
Value Returned 

 / , . ; “text”  Quoted text and punctuation are reproduced in the result 
AD A.D.  Indicates date that is AD. Periods optional 
AM A.M. PM P.M.  Before or after noon. Periods optional 
BC B.C.  Indicates date that is BC. Periods optional 
CC SCC  Century (SCC precedes BC century with ) 
D  The day of week (1–7) 
DAY  The name of the day of the week (Monday, Tuesday, etc.). Padded to 9 characters. 
DD  Day of month (1–31) 
DDD  The number of the day of year (1–366) 
DY  The name of the day of the week, abbreviated 
E  Abbreviated era name (for Japanese Imperial, ROC Official, and Thai Buddha calendars) 
EE  Full era name 
FF [1–9]  Fractional seconds. 1–9 specifies the number of digits 
HH  Hour of day(12hour clock) 
HH12  Hour of day (12hour clock) 
HH24  Hour of day (24hour clock) 
IW  Number of Week of the year 
IYY IY I  Last 3, 2, or 1 digit(s) of ISO year 
IYYY  4digit ISO year 
J  Julian day(number of days since January 1, 4712 BC) 
MI  Minute (0–59) 
MM  Month (01–12) 
MON  JAN, FEB, MAR, etc. 
MONTH  Full month name, padded to 9 characters 
Q  Quarter of year where JAN–MAR = 1 
RM  Month in Roman numerals (I–XII; JAN = I) 
RR  Last two digits of the year, for years in previous or next century (where previous if current year is <=50, next if current year >50) 
RRRR  Round year. Accepts 4 or 2 digit input, 2 digit returns as RR. 
SS  Seconds (0–59) 
SSSSS  Seconds past midnight (0–86399) 
TZD  Abbreviated Time Zone String with Daylight Savings 
TZH  Time zone hour 
TZM  Time zone minute 
WW  The week of the year (1–53) 
W  The week of the month 
X  Local radix character 
Y, YYY  Year, with comma as shown 
YEAR SYEAR 
Year, fully spelled out. For SYEAR, BC dates use “” 
Y YY YYY 
Final one, two, or three digits of the year 
Date Prefixes and Suffixes
The following prefixes can be added to date formats:
FM  The fill mode toggle. Suppresses blank padding of MONTH or DAY 
FX  Specifies that the format of TO_DATE functions must be an exact match 
The following suffixes may be added to date formats:
TH  converts to an ordinal number ("5TH") 
SP  Spells out the number ("FIVE") 
SPTH or THSP  Spells out the ordinal number ("FIFTH") 
Number Format Models
Table 116. Number Format Models
Element 
Example 
Value Returned 

,  9,999  Returns a comma at the position specified 
.  99.99  Returns a period (decimal point) at the position specified 
$  $9999  Leading dollar sign 
0  0999  Returns value with leading zeros 
0  9990  Returns value with trailing zeros 
9  9999  Returns value with the specified number of digits. Leading space if positive, – if negative. Leading zeros are blank, except when integer portion is zero, then a single leading zero is returned. 
B  B9999  As in 9, above, but returns a blank in all cases for leading zeros 
C  C999  Returns the ISO currency symbol 
D  99D99  Returns the NLS decimal character in the specified position 
EEEE  9.9EEEE  Returns value in scientific notation 
FM  FM90.9  Returns a value without leading or trailing blanks 
G  9G999  Returns the value with the NLS group separator in the specified position 
L  L999  Returns the value with the NLS Local Currency Symbol in the specified position. Negative values have a trailing minus sign (–), positive values with a trailing blank. 
PR  9999PR  Returns negative values in <angle brackets>, positives have leading and trailing blanks 
RN rn  RN rn  Returns the value as Roman numerals, in the casespecified 
S  S9999 9999S  Returns the value with a + or – sign denoting positive or negative value in the position shown (can only be first or last position). 
TM  TM  “Text minimum.” Returns the smallest number of characters possible and is caseinsensitive. Default is TM9 that uses fixed notation up to 64 characters, then scientific notation. 
U  U9999  Returns the “Euro” (or other) NLS dual currency symbol in the specified position 
V  999V99  Returns a value multiplied by 10 times the number of 9s specified after the V 
X  XXXX  Returns the Hexadecimal value. Precede with a 0 to have leading zeros, or FM to remove the leading blank. 